After Charles’ execution, Oliver Cromwell, whose signature can be seen on Charles I's death warrant, gradually established himself the ruler of England. I would have no such imputation. [293] On the day after the execution, the king's head was sewn back onto his body, which was then embalmed and placed in a lead coffin. [236] Charles was eager to exploit the widening divisions, and apparently viewed Joyce's actions as an opportunity rather than a threat. In addition to acquiring a personal collection of some 1,400 paintings and 400 pieces of sculpture, he also patronised and encouraged the leading artists and architects of the day. Image: The Execution of Charles I, © National Galleries of Scotland. The incident set an important precedent as the process of impeachment would later be used against Charles and his supporters: the Duke of Buckingham, Archbishop William Laud, and the Earl of Strafford. He genuinely believed that a dictatorship was the only effective form of government. He also lacked the charisma and vision essential for leadership. Charles I only became heir when his brother Henry died in 1612. The Rump was created by Pride’s Purge when Colonel Thomas Pride forcibly removed from the Long Parliament all those members who supported the King and were not supporters of the Grandees in the New Model Army and the Independents. As a result of the Coronavirus global pandemic, we have taken the difficult decision to close Banqueting House until March 2021. The sheriff presiding over the execution abruptly cut him off and the outraged Scott cried “It’s hard [that] an Englishman may not have liberty to speak.” Shortly afterwards, … However, in public the King’s acute shyness made him appear haughty and arrogant. [221] In January 1644, Charles summoned a Parliament at Oxford, which was attended by about 40 peers and 118 members of the Commons; all told, the Oxford Parliament, which sat until March 1645, was supported by the majority of peers and about a third of the Commons. Facts about Charles 1st Execution 4: the schedule for the execution. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. [333] As king, Charles bore the royal arms undifferenced: Quarterly, I and IV Grandquarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland). [103], Against the background of this unrest, Charles faced bankruptcy in mid-1640. Determined to maintain absolute power, Charles was out of step with the changing times. Born and died the same day. Charles insisted that the trial was illegal, explaining that, .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, no earthly power can justly call me (who am your King) in question as a delinquent ... this day's proceeding cannot be warranted by God's laws; for, on the contrary, the authority of obedience unto Kings is clearly warranted, and strictly commanded in both the Old and New Testament ... for the law of this land, I am no less confident, that no learned lawyer will affirm that an impeachment can lie against the King, they all going in his name: and one of their maxims is, that the King can do no wrong ... the higher House is totally excluded; and for the House of Commons, it is too well known that the major part of them are detained or deterred from sitting ... the arms I took up were only to defend the fundamental laws of this kingdom against those who have supposed my power hath totally changed the ancient government. His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated antipathy and mistrust from Reformed religious groups such as the English Puritans and Scottish Covenanters, who thought his views were too Catholic. The King was taken to his bedchamber in Whitehall Palace, to await summons to the scaffold. [1] At a Protestant ceremony in the Chapel Royal of Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh on 23 December 1600, he was baptised by David Lindsay, Bishop of Ross, and created Duke of Albany, the traditional title of the second son of the King of Scotland, with the subsidiary titles of Marquess of Ormond, Earl of Ross and Lord Ardmannoch. Both were Henry and Elizabeth. [288] The clean strike, confirmed by an examination of the king's body at Windsor in 1813,[289][h] suggests that the execution was carried out by an experienced headsman. The Commons was outraged by the imprisonment of two of their members, and after about a week in custody, both were released. [257] The Rump Commons declared itself capable of legislating alone, passed a bill creating a separate court for Charles's trial, and declared the bill an act without the need for royal assent. The Execution of King Charles I , Charles I, King of England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland Etching, Sheet: 7 5/16 × 5 5/8 in. The Trial and Execution of Charles I, 1648-49 Lecturer: Prof. John Morrill – Cambridge University. [20] James's Lord Chancellor, Francis Bacon, was impeached before the House of Lords for corruption. [37] On 1 May 1625 Charles was married by proxy to the fifteen-year-old French princess Henrietta Maria in front of the doors of Notre Dame de Paris. [311] In 1627 and 1628, Charles purchased the entire collection of the Duke of Mantua, which included work by Titian, Correggio, Raphael, Caravaggio, del Sarto and Mantegna. [67] In contrast, the public rejoiced at Buckingham's death, which accentuated the gulf between the court and the nation, and between the Crown and the Commons. [28] The Spanish insisted on toleration of Catholics in England and the repeal of the penal laws, which Charles knew would never be agreed by Parliament, and that the Infanta remain in Spain for a year after any wedding to ensure that England complied with all the terms of the treaty. On January 30, 1649, Charles I, King of England was beheaded for treason and other high crimes at the Palace of Whitehall in London, England where a scaffold had been built outside the Banqueting House. [292], It was common practice for the severed head of a traitor to be held up and exhibited to the crowd with the words "Behold the head of a traitor! [186] Throughout November, a series of alarmist pamphlets published stories of atrocities in Ireland,[187] which included massacres of New English settlers by the native Irish who could not be controlled by the Old English lords. [145] A cessation of arms, although not a final settlement, was negotiated in the humiliating Treaty of Ripon, signed in October 1640. The ten who refused to beg forgiveness were tried and sentenced to death. Once again, Charles's supporters fared badly at the polls. The City of London, preoccupied with its own grievances, refused to make any loans to the king, as did foreign powers. [228] The military balance tipped decisively in favour of Parliament. The Execution of Charles I by an Unknown Artist – formerly attributed to John Weesop. In the years after his death, the muddle of Parliament, sober life under the Puritans and ultimately failure to establish a functioning government meant people started viewing Charles I differently. [4], By 1604, when Charles was three-and-a-half, he was able to walk the length of the great hall at Dunfermline Palace without assistance, and it was decided that he was strong enough to make the journey to England to be reunited with his family. After the trial he was taken by sedan chair a short distance to his old room at Whitehall Palace. [60], Charles provoked further unrest by trying to raise money for the war through a "forced loan": a tax levied without parliamentary consent. [255] The idea of trying a king was a novel one. [119] On 23 July, riots erupted in Edinburgh upon the first Sunday of the prayer book's usage, and unrest spread throughout the Kirk. The royal marriage produced nine children, including future Charles II, and Mary Henrietta, who married William II of Orange. A huge crowd had gathered in the bitter weather. [112] Laud prosecuted those who opposed his reforms in the Court of High Commission and the Star Chamber, the two most powerful courts in the land. By Andrew Marvell (1621–1678) Charles I. was executed at Whitehall on Jan. 30, 1649, and was buried on the same night in St. George’s Chapel, Windsor. Self-righteous, arrogant, and unscrupulous; he had a penchant for making bad decisions. In direct contrast to his previous conflict with the Scottish Kirk, on 26 December 1647 he signed a secret treaty with the Scots. They believed that kings were chosen by God to rule, and that only God could overrule them. Now law, history and fact were being twisted again to argue that a king could … Like many of Charles I’s regicides, and indeed the King himself, he faced the executioner with remarkable courage. Great to explore the execution, … In this course, Professor John Morrill (University of Cambridge) examines one of the most extraordinary events in British political history: the execution of the king, Charles I, in January 1649. "[328] The style "of France" was only nominal, and was used by every English monarch from Edward III to George III, regardless of the amount of French territory actually controlled. Charles also believed that he had the sole right to make laws, so to oppose him was a sin against God. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament. Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II 2017. Four years later, in November 1616, he was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester. © National Portrait Gallery, London. [317] In recent decades, most historians have criticised him,[318] the main exception being Kevin Sharpe who offered a more sympathetic view of Charles that has not been widely adopted. [239] By November, he determined that it would be in his best interests to escape – perhaps to France, Southern England or to Berwick-upon-Tweed, near the Scottish border. [41] Moreover, the treaty loaned to the French seven English naval ships that would be used to suppress the Protestant Huguenots at La Rochelle in September 1625. The only precedent for the execution of a monarch was that of Charles’s grandmother Mary, Queen of Scots. Some of the factors could were under Charles' control, others were unavoidable. [277] Charles was separated from spectators by large ranks of soldiers, and his last speech reached only those with him on the scaffold. Watch this momentous event brought to life in this special documentary. [17] James, however, had been seeking marriage between the new Prince of Wales and Ferdinand's niece, Habsburg princess Maria Anna of Spain, and began to see the Spanish match as a possible diplomatic means of achieving peace in Europe. The King told his two youngest not to grieve, that they should obey their elder brother Charles, the lawful sovereign. The House of Lords was abolished by the Rump Commons, and executive power was assumed by a Council of State. After a week, he set out for the capital on 3 November, capturing Brentford on the way while simultaneously continuing to negotiate with civic and parliamentary delegations. After informing the peers that a parliament would convene in November, he asked them to consider how he could acquire funds to maintain his army against the Scots in the meantime. [148], The Long Parliament proved just as difficult for Charles as had the Short Parliament. [83], Personal rule necessitated peace. Many people were heartily sick of the sober restraints of Puritanism.Oliver Cromwell, who died a disillusioned man in 1658, had failed to create a working Parliament and his incompetent son and heir, Richard, was forced to resign. [152], Strafford had become the principal target of the Parliamentarians, particularly John Pym, and he went on trial for high treason on 22 March 1641. [26] In the end, however, the trip was an embarrassing failure. [2], James VI was the first cousin twice removed of Queen Elizabeth I of England, and when she died childless in March 1603, he became King of England as James I. Charles was a weak and sickly infant, and while his parents and older siblings left for England in April and early June that year, due to his fragile health,[3] he remained in Scotland with his father's friend Lord Fyvie, appointed as his guardian. Charles I was given just three days to put his affairs in order and say goodbye to his family. [217] He regrouped at Oxford, turning down Rupert's suggestion of an immediate attack on London. [122] Charles did not seek subsidies from the English Parliament to wage war, but instead raised an army without parliamentary aid and marched to Berwick-upon-Tweed, on the border of Scotland. [218], The war continued indecisively over the next couple of years, and Henrietta Maria returned to Britain for 17 months from February 1643. [295], The commission refused to allow Charles's burial at Westminster Abbey, so his body was conveyed to Windsor on the night of 7 February. [23] In January 1622, James dissolved Parliament, angry at what he perceived as the members' impudence and intransigence. Charles refused to see anyone but his children and his chaplain, Bishop Juxon. [14], In 1613, Charles's sister Elizabeth married Frederick V, Elector Palatine, and moved to Heidelberg. Charles I and His Execution In order to consider whether Charles the first was responsible for his execution it is important to explore a number of different issues. Charles I remains the only English monarch to have been tried and executed for treason. [285], The executioner was masked and disguised, and there is debate over his identity. The power had swung to the army, which was most effectively vested in Henry Ireton and Oliver Cromwell. On January 29th, he was visited by them. Many watching were aghast, with one witness commenting 'There was such a groan by the thousands then present as I never heard before and desire I may never hear again’. "[322] Charles was more sober and refined than his father,[323] but he was intransigent. The two armies met at Newbury, Berkshire, on 20 September. Charles was a sickly child, very small (his adult height was only 1.5m) and still could not walk or talk aged two. [96] The prosecution of John Hampden for non-payment in 1637–38 provided a platform for popular protest, and the judges found against Hampden only by the narrow margin of 7–5. [29] A personal quarrel erupted between Buckingham and the Count of Olivares, the Spanish chief minister, and so Charles conducted the ultimately futile negotiations personally. From “An Horation Ode” * * * * * That Charles himself might chase: To Carisbrook’s narrow case; That thence the royal actor borne, The tragic scaffold might adorn. Most fled abroad, or surrendered voluntarily to avoid execution. [9] Charles learnt the usual subjects of classics, languages, mathematics and religion. [182], In November 1641, the House of Commons passed the Grand Remonstrance, a long list of grievances against actions by Charles's ministers committed since the beginning of his reign (that were asserted to be part of a grand Catholic conspiracy of which the king was an unwitting member),[183] but it was in many ways a step too far by Pym and passed by only 11 votes – 159 to 148. Just as at Edgehill, the battle stalemated at nightfall, and the armies disengaged. "[268] He claimed that no court had jurisdiction over a monarch,[256] that his own authority to rule had been given to him by God and by the traditional laws of England, and that the power wielded by those trying him was only that of force of arms. In a nutshell, King Charles I believed that he held the Divine Right of Kings and that he should have absolute rule. He was the youngest child of James I, known as ‘Baby Charles’. [24], Charles and Buckingham, James's favourite and a man who had great influence over the prince,[25] travelled incognito to Spain in February 1623 to try to reach agreement on the long-pending Spanish match. [22] Charles, like his father, considered the discussion of his marriage in the Commons impertinent and an infringement of his father's royal prerogative. [196], Charles suspected, probably correctly, that some members of the English Parliament had colluded with the invading Scots. [315], In the words of John Philipps Kenyon, "Charles Stuart is a man of contradictions and controversy". But they were held so far away that the King's final short speech was lost in the freezing air. But was he guilty? "[281], At about 2:00 p.m.,[282] Charles put his head on the block after saying a prayer and signalled the executioner when he was ready by stretching out his hands; he was then beheaded with one clean stroke. [176], Strafford's fall from power weakened Charles's influence in Ireland. He stubbornly refused to accept defeat or submit to the republican authority. [71] She became pregnant for the first time, and the bond between them grew stronger. His lack of empathy and refusal to consider opposing views led to his increasing unpopularity. The execution of Charles I is remembered every year on 30 January with a service in the Banqueting House. [5] In England, Charles was placed under the charge of Elizabeth, Lady Carey, the wife of courtier Sir Robert Carey, who put him in boots made of Spanish leather and brass to help strengthen his weak ankles. His attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices led to the Bishops' Wars, strengthened the position of the English and Scottish parliaments, and helped precipitate his own downfall. [128] In March 1640, the Irish Parliament duly voted in a subsidy of £180,000 with the promise to raise an army 9,000 strong by the end of May. Despite his crucial failings as a monarch, Charles was a true patron of the arts. [68] Although the death of Buckingham effectively ended the war with Spain and eliminated his leadership as an issue, it did not end the conflicts between Charles and Parliament. Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649)[a] was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. [246] On 5 December 1648, Parliament voted by 129 to 83 to continue negotiating with the king,[247] but Oliver Cromwell and the army opposed any further talks with someone they viewed as a bloody tyrant and were already taking action to consolidate their power. When armed conflict arose between the Gaelic Irish and New English, in late October 1641, the Old English sided with the Gaelic Irish while simultaneously professing their loyalty to the king. [91] To raise revenue without reconvening Parliament, Charles resurrected an all-but-forgotten law called the "Distraint of Knighthood", in abeyance for over a century, which required any man who earned £40 or more from land each year to present himself at the king's coronation to be knighted. [166] The House of Commons also launched bills attacking bishops and episcopacy, but these failed in the Lords. 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